JP 2065 Integrated Broadcast Service (IBS)

JP 2065 (IBS) and a parallel project, JP2089 Tactical Information Exchange (TIE), are intrinsic components of a Defence global communications architecture that will facilitate the use of the now rapidly evolving “ Everything Over the Internet Protocol” (EOIP) capability for real-time video, voice, digital data – contributing to the effectiveness of Network Centric Warfare (NCW).

4th May 2012

 JP 2065 Integrated Broadcast Service (IBS)

Byline: Frederick Haddock / Canberra

JP 2065 (IBS) and a parallel project, JP2089 Tactical Information Exchange (TIE), are intrinsic components of a Defence global communications architecture that will facilitate the use of the now rapidly evolving “ Everything Over the Internet Protocol” (EOIP) capability for real-time video, voice, digital data – contributing to the effectiveness of Network Centric Warfare (NCW).

In earlier years the Defence use of the Optus C1 satellite provided an invaluable wide area communications capability. More recently the purchase of a Wideband Global Satellite (WGS-6) established the ADF as part of the US global military communications system.
The recent launch of the Intelsat IS-22 geostationary satellite on 25 March, carrying a payload of 18 25KHz UHF channels and commercial channels attests to the penetration of Satcom for Defence purposes. IS -22 will fill “holes” in earth communications coverage for secure duplex voice and data services to be transmitted between ground troops, tactical forces and force headquarters anywhere from the west coast of Africa to the east coast of Australia. This capability will facilitate HQ Command ‘s communications with widely dispersed fielded forces quickly and intelligibly. The area is not presently well covered by US Satcom systems.

The development of the US Armed Force’s capabilities to simultaneously project power in multiple areas of the globe has been a five-phase process.
• the development of new weapon systems, new sensor systems and, of critical importance, new communications systems to serve them;
• the development of world-wide coverage, the poles excepted, satellite communications systems, both military and adaptation of commercial satellites.
• the development of a global command and control architecture, now called Network Centric Warfare for the US Military. This capability provides full duplex, seamless, error free, addressed voice and data between and within land, air and sea force groups and designated, remote, force commanders.
• the adoption of a seamless, near real-time Internet EOIP communications system continues to evolve with examples being the introduction of UAVs and manned aircraft to extend the global communications capability.
• Replacing IPv4 with IPv6

The Australian Defence application of the US DoD’s multi-phase, world-wide footprint, satellite-based communications system has been in progress for a number of years while the requirement has been studied by Defence. Recently, JP2065 Phase 2, to be followed by Phase 3, has begun its acquisition process. With an IOC of 2013-14 to 2015-16, the project leaves little room for hiccups if the date is to be achieved.

It is evident that some time ago Defence decided to adopt the totality of the US military strategic and tactical communications networks and subsystems with IBS and the Worldwide Global Satellite (WGS) system being two of the most important. Defence has already purchased the WGS- 6 satellite and - through JP 2065 - will adopt the US IBS network architecture and system interfaces as far as possible. Where Australian-developed system interfaces do not conform to US standards, it appears likely that suitably qualified Australian Industry companies may be given a significant system integration opportunity.

Additionally, Defence has contracted Intelsat to supply and support a defence UHF communications payload, mentioned above, for 15 years to provide reliable military communications. The rationale for this acquisition is that the ADF has limited use of US satellites operating in the region and the selection of the Intelsat IS-22 will ensure that Defence has its own dedicated communications network in the region. The UHF band is a critically important feature of Defence communications networks as it allows small, mobile, terminals to be used by ground, sea and air forces and it is generally immune to operations in densely forested areas. It is anticipated that, as necessary, data acquired by this network will be made available to US Armed Forces in the area. The contract price with Intelsat was $269 million.

The US DOD’s development of IBS and its integration with systems served by it began early in the last decade and continues today as technology evolves. Integration of an IBS in the US context has involved the development of new equipment e.g. JTTRS and the applications architecture of it with IBS. Hence, the results of the adoption of IBS by the US military may, similarly, have a major impact on existing ADF systems and those that are emerging. The cost and implementation timescale of complete capability will be expensive and lengthy. It is also considered possible that tighter operational integration of the ADF’s operations with its allies, offered by IBS, may require a rethink of its still evolving NCW practices and the Defence Information Environment.

To provide an idea of the size of implementing IBS, the current public version of the DCP lists 15 communications –related projects that the adoption of IBS may impact. Additionally, the reconfiguration of the global communications network that the adoption of IBS and related systems is considered likely to impact the totality of the networked operational management (NCW) practices. These are still being developed by the DOD/ADF and the US Armed Forces.
Nonetheless, the adoption of IBS and allied systems is essential for the operational enhancement of the ADF’s offshore capabilities and its ability to operate efficiently, effectively and reliably with its allies.

Extract from DCP 2010 Update re JP 2065

Phase 1 was specified to deliver a proof-of-concept IBS functionality to the ADF. This functionality included the establishment of an Information Management Element (IME) that correlated and bridged information between a number of computer networks, satellite links and gateways between real-time tactical data links. This capability formed an important component of the ADF’s Tactical Information Environment (TIE) while concurrently supporting closer allied interoperability.

Phase 2 is scoped to upgrade the current ADF capability to maintain and improve compatibility with the allies. It is expected to build upon the infrastructure developed under Phase 1 while extending the roll-out of the IB Service to more ADF Units through the introduction of an upgraded, more permanent, technology.

Phase 3 aims to further develop the IBS capability through investigation of new radio techniques. It may also expand the user base through improved network dissemination.

IBS unique equipment and services are to be procured through government –to- government arrangements. Other equipment and services may be procured through Australian Industry.”
Under Australian Industry opportunities it is noteworthy that System Integration is now listed as a preferred activity in addition to the standard list of support activities.
The US scene
IBS satellite technology and contributing terminals for numerous applications have been under development by the US DoD for almost a decade and continue to evolve as newer systems are meshed with it, older systems are retired and new warfighting strategies and methodologies emerge. This situation is likely to prevail for some time to come through spiral evolution. The advent of this new capability has provided the opportunity for the US DOD to upgrade its NCW operations, introduce new systems and consolidate its operating standards and, similarly, those of nations who are US Allies.

The need for IBS and functionally similar systems owe their origin, to three principle circumstances:
• the USA’s post-WW11concept of global projection of power in its objectives for world military and economic stabilisation (to the advantage of the USA),
• the tsunami –like proliferation of the commercial development and applications of the Internet, the majority of which are being adopted by the US Armed Forces, but with enhanced security,
• the development of global satellite and terrestrial fibre communications to support the Internet, largely attributable to the enormous power of US industrial capability.
• A fourth, perhaps questionable, circumstance is the further consolidation of the involvement of declared US allies into the US military hegemony, stemming from WW11 and other more recent military and quasi-civil engagements. Australia has, throughout the period, been a committed, but not always a net beneficiary, ally of this last circumstance.
Early in its development the IBS was described as a system “ that fulfils the warfighters’ requirements for worldwide threat warning and situational awareness information with timely production and simultaneous dissemination of ISR- derived combat information needs. IBS also provides target-tracking data to support threat avoidance, targeting, force protection and situation awareness. Information is continuously upgraded in near-real time by strategic, operational and tactical sensors”. This description still appears to be valid.

Where does IBS fit?

IBS is an “enabling capability” in a worldwide geostationary satellite-connected communications system that does not, of itself, generate strategic and tactical information, but is a distributor of it using mandated formats and high levels of signal processing. IBS is the declared world-wide US DoD standard network that provides connectivity for strategic and tactical intelligence and targeting data between force elements operating in large tactical areas, where terrestrial communications are not reliable, or impossible, between remote force command structures. A common format is used to bidirectionally connect the IBS to fielded systems (air, land, sea) using a Joint Tactical Terminal (JTT).

In the ADF context, the adoption of IBS is unlikely to replace the existing terrestrial communications of fielded “system-centric” applications, but it is likely to be fully integrated with such systems to facilitate the application of NCW practices for output and input system data. Project examples are JP 2072, Battlespace Communications (Land), which supports the Land 75, Deployable Battlefield Management System, a highly localised tactical system that has been developed over many years and is still being evolved in Australia to meet ADF requirements. A third example is the RAN’s adoption of the USN’s Cooperative Engagement Capability - that is a highly system-centric application, using Link 16, between ships in a common warfare group. A fourth example will be the retention of the HF Mod Communications system as a fall-back option in the event of satellite failure for. IBS will undoubtedly be fully integrated with the ADF’s NCW topology. The US military environment in which IBS operates is also still evolving, particularly in the areas of use of mobile aerial platforms.

Joint Tactical Terminal (JTT) and the IBS Interfaces.

IBS conforms with US DoD defined operational standards for the JTT. The JTT is a family of open architecture, software-programmable, intelligent radios that are able to operate at security levels above Secret. They have been designed to provide common communications and display capabilities for the transmission of battlefield intelligence from various systems to specified addressees and also to receive intelligence data from those addressees using a number of existing intelligence broadcast networks and systems, one of which is IBS. IBS and JTT assets interoperate in near real-time using full duplex UHF, very high data rate, bearers in conjunction with a satellite. There are two generic JTTs, the JTT and the Commanders’ Tactical Terminal (CTT).

Range of JTTs

The JTTs for the US Armed Forces also process the Tactical Reconnaissance Intelligence eXchange Service (TRIXS), the Tactical Information Broadcast Service (TIBS), the Tactical Related Applications (TRAP) and the Tactical Data Information eXchange System-B (TADIXS-B). These duplex capability services each provide critical data link connectivity to battle managers, intelligence centres, air defence, fire support and aviation nodes across all services. The Joint Tactical Terminal Common Integrated Broadcast Service Module (JTT/CIBS-M) consists of a family of tactical terminals and modules for multi-path UHF data communications. The terminals use standard, modular, communications equipment to improve operational supportability and modularity allows integration into existing systems (e.g. aircraft, ships, submarines, armoured vehicles) having various configurations. The JTT/CIBS-M provides user access to the IBS and other C4I systems operating at varying security levels.

JTT/CIBS-M supports advanced encryption techniques.
The Commander's Tactical Terminal (CTT) is a family of special application UHF tactical intelligence terminals, integrated with the host system/platform, that provide selected addressees’ access to a full-duplex capability to allow dynamically adjust pre-planned tasking.

The Wide-Band Global Satellite System (WGS)

The WGS program began in 2000 as the Wideband Gapfiller Satellite, but was renamed WGS when the future Advance Wideband System (AWS) was deferred due to funding constraints. AWS seems unlikely to be re-introduced due the success of the WGS.

The WGS supports the US DoD’s warfighting information exchange requirements, enabling execution of tactical C2 and C4ISR protocols, battle management and combat support information. WGS also augments the current Ka-band Global Broadcast Service (on UHF F/O satellites) by providing additional information broadcast capabilities.
WGS is the DoD's highest-capacity satellite communications system produced to date as each one can process 2.1 to 3.6 Gbps of data, providing more than 10 times the communications capacity of the predecessor DSCS III satellite. Its communications system uses reconfigurable antennas, a digital channelizer, that offers added flexibility to tailor coverage areas, and to connect X-band and Ka-band users anywhere within the satellite’s field of view. The payload provides tremendous operational flexibility and delivers the needed capacity, coverage, connectivity and control in support of demanding operational scenarios. The block diagram of the WGS payload is shown below.

Boeing was awarded the initial contract in January 2001 for the first three WGS satellites, plus the associated ground-based command and control elements. Integrated logistics, training, and sustaining engineering support were also provided by Boeing.

The first three satellites, which constitute Block I, are all on-orbit and are meeting or exceeding all operational requirements. WGS-1 was placed into service over the Pacific Ocean region in April 2008, WGS-2 was placed into service over the Middle East in August 2009 and WGS-3 went into operations over Europe and Africa in June 2010.

In October 2006 a Block II contract was placed for satellites WGS-4, -5, and -6, to meet evolving Satcom bandwidth requirements. The Block II satellites added a radio frequency bypass capability designed to support airborne intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance platforms requiring ultra-high bandwidth and data rates demanded by unmanned aerial vehicles. Australia purchased WGS-6 in a bilateral acquisition partnership to support the Southwest Pacific region.
In the period August 2010- January 2012, Boeing was authorised to begin work on WGS-7 through WGS-9 as a follow-on extension of Block II. The authorisation covered full production, launch and on-orbit activation of the satellites.

In January 2012 New Zealand, supported by Canada, Denmark , Luxembourg and The Netherlands joined to acquire services from WGS-9 for USD 620m.
WGS Capacity:
WGS supports communications links that fall within the USG’s allocation of 500 MHz of X-band and 1 GHz of military Ka-band spectrum and it can filter and route 4.875 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth. Depending on the mix of ground terminals, data rates and modulation schemes employed, each satellite can support data transmission rates ranging from 2.1 Gbps to more than 3.6 Gbps. By comparison, a DSCS III satellite supported only up to 0.25 Gbps.

WGS Coverage:
The WGS design provides for 19 independently selectable antenna coverage areas that can be positioned on demand throughout the field of view of each satellite. There are eight steerable and shape-able X-band beams formed by separate transmit and receive phased arrays; 10 Ka-band beams served by independently steerable, diplexed antennas, including three with selectable RF polarization and transmit/receive X-band Earth-coverage beams.

WGS Payload Connectivity.
The enhanced connectivity capabilities of WGS enables any user to communicate with any other user with very efficient management of payload bandwidth. The digital channelizer divides the uplink bandwidth into nearly 1,900 independently routable 2.6 MHz subchannels, providing connectivity from any uplink coverage area to any downlink coverage area (including the ability to cross-band between X and Ka frequencies). In addition, the channelizer supports multicast and broadcast services and provides an effective and flexible uplink spectrum monitoring capability to support network control. The Ka band service is provided by high-gain steerable gimballed dish antennas, which allow a high-data-rate service to access relatively small, less than optimally located, terminals.

WGS Payload Command & Control

Payload control of the satellites is accomplished by four Army-operated Wideband Satellite Operations Centres (WSOCs), using ground equipment hardware and software developed by Boeing, ITT Industries, and Raytheon Company.
Spacecraft platform control is performed by the USAF-operated 3rd Space Operations Squadron at Schriever AFB in Colorado Springs, using WGS mission unique software and databases provided by Boeing, hosted on the Command and Control Segment Consolidated systems that are being fielded by Integral Systems, Inc.
The extent to which Australia will be able to control the WGS-6 platform and payload is not known.

Boeing 702HP Platform :

The Boeing 702HP satellite is the industry leader in capacity, performance and cost-efficiency. Enabling technologies for the advanced 702HP design are the xenon-ion propulsion steering system (XIPS), highly efficient triple-junction gallium arsenide solar cells, and deployable radiators with flexible heat pipes.
XIPS is 10 times more efficient than conventional bipropellant steering systems. Four 25-cm thrusters remove orbit eccentricity during transfer orbit operations and are used for orbit maintenance and to perform station change manoeuvers as required throughout the mission life. Deployable radiators with flexible heat pipes provide substantially more radiator area, resulting in a cooler, more stable thermal environment for both bus and payload. This feature increases component reliability and reduces performance variations over life.

• The purchase by Australia of the most advanced Satellite communications capability available from the USA, is a major step towards enhancement of the nation’s military intelligence endeavours and its closer operational integration with the US Armed Forces and common allies.
• The integration of the WGS capabilities into the ADF’s present and future capabilities will be a major effort and, considering the fact that there are a significant number of projects in the DCP that are related to JP 2065 and in the same time-frame, their successful integration and achievement of superior operational performance by the ADF presents a major challenge.
• The introduction into service of the products of JP 2065 and related projects offers the opportunity for Australian Industry to be involved at many levels and for there to be established a superior systems integration capability to that which presently exists in this technology.




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